Career Opportunities for Philosophy Majors

From learning about ancient philosophies to studying various types of texts, being a philosophy major gives you an inside look into some of the issues societies have been grappling with since the beginning of time. But if you’re a philosophy major, you may be wondering about the best way to apply your knowledge and your skills in the real world. For example, what career paths can you embark on with a philosophy major and how can you put your skills to use in those roles?

Here are some of the most common career paths for philosophy majors.


Since philosophy majors spend so much time focusing on big-picture questions and grappling with ethics and ideas, a career in the legal field can be a wonderful fit for them. From working to enact legislative change to advocating on behalf of clients, philosophy majors make wonderful lawyers, paralegals and legislative aides.


Another great career path for philosophy majors is education. With their strong communication skills and knowledge of history and culture, philosophy majors can excel as teachers at both the secondary (middle school and high school) and postsecondary levels (college and beyond).


For those philosophy majors who thrive in a research-focused environment, a career in the research field can also be a great fit. From pursuing a doctorate in philosophy to conducting research projects for a government organization or nonprofit, philosophy majors can excel in a research-oriented profession.


Although philosophy may seem far removed from the world of business, there are a lot of overlaps between the skills philosophy majors use in their classes and those that apply to a business setting. These include critical-thinking skills which are great for identifying operational problems and communication skills which are crucial for running a business.


Like the more general field of business, consulting is a natural fit for philosophy majors since it relies heavily on the ability to assess business challenges and to offer creative solutions. Best of all, consulting allows philosophy majors the opportunity to apply their understanding of big-picture issues in a practical and effective way.

One of the best things about being a philosophy major is that it can help you build a broad range of skills while also giving you insights into how societies function and what they need in order to thrive. These are lessons that can easily be applied to fields like business, consulting and education. The best way to find out which type of career is right for you is to take on an internship in a field that interests you. This will give you the hands-on experience you need to find the perfect job.

Next, learn more about this college major such as What is a Philosophy Major and is it Right for Me? and get more career tips for internships and entry-level jobs such as When to Start Applying for a Summer Internship.

Types of Internships for Philosophy Majors

A philosophy major is a great opportunity to learn about some of the complex issues we face as individuals and as a society. It’s also a wonderful chance to develop a strong set of core skills including communication skills and the ability to think critically. And because this combination of big-picture ideas and skills translates well into multiple careers, philosophy majors can be found in a variety of different industries including education, research and law. How do you decide which field is right for you? An internship is a great way to explore your options while gaining some professional experience.

Some of the most common internships for philosophy majors are:

Education intern

If you’re thinking of a career in teaching, an educational internship can be a wonderful way to get exposure to life in the classroom. Whether you’re interning at an elementary school or a high school, you’ll learn how to prepare and present information to students, grade papers and structure a lesson plan.

Research intern

Since philosophy majors are trained to think critically and explore new ideas, a research internship can be the perfect way to develop these skills and to discover new areas of interest both within the field of philosophy and beyond it. You can intern at a research organization or apply for a research assistant position at a university department.

Legal intern

Another common career path for philosophy majors is law and being a legal intern will help you learn more about the field while also sharpening your reasoning skills and objectivity. From directly assisting an attorney with their work to researching cases, drafting memos and writing legislation, this type of internship will give you an insight into the perks and responsibilities of working in the legal field.

Policy intern

A policy internship involves conducting legislative research, developing fact sheets, tracking federal legislation, attending congressional briefings and representing your organization in conferences. If you decide to become a policy intern, you’ll keep up with reforms, write and edit reports and support staff with research and analyses of specific issues. Depending on the organization your work for, you could be working towards educational reform, environmental safety or a humanitarian cause. The work you’ll do will strengthen your understanding of the impact and procedures behind policy reform and change.

Junior analyst

Want to branch out into consulting or finance? Working as a junior analyst is a great way to see if these fields are a good fit for you. As a junior business analyst or financial analyst, you’ll identify client needs, assess and evaluate possible solutions and prepare reports on how they can be implemented. You’ll also stay up to date with the latest business and economic trends, which will help you make informed decisions and build up your knowledge base.

Nonprofit intern

For those philosophy majors who are interested in entering the nonprofit sector, interning with a nonprofit could be a great way to get started. In this type of internship, you’ll become familiar with a smaller, sometimes more cohesive environment, take on administrative as well as more specific responsibilities and learn more about causes that are close to your heart. You’ll also be able to use your writing and presentation skills to write reports and grant applications and as well as to come up with presentations for conferences and events.

From learning how to present information to a class of students to understanding how to assess and solve operational problems related to a specific type of business, an internship is a wonderful way philosophy majors to explore their options and figure out the career path that fits them best.

Next, learn more about this college major such as What is a Philosophy Major and is it Right for Me? and get more career tips for internships and entry-level jobs such as What Motivates You?

Types of Internships for Global Studies Majors

With its strong focus on political science and economics, a global studies major can help you develop a broad range of research and critical thinking skills. It can also open up the doors to many exciting career opportunities in fields such as politics and the nonprofit sector. To find out which of these opportunities matches your skills and interests, we recommend taking on an internship.

Here are some of the most common internships for global studies majors:

Political intern (with the State Department or with a congressman)

Political internships with the Department of State or with congressmen and women are extremely prestigious and competitive. From conducting research on elections and specific candidates to drafting outreach materials and providing administrative support, there are plenty of opportunities to develop your skills while learning a lot about the field of politics. You’ll get an insider’s view of various campaigns and government activities, and have the opportunity to network with others in the field.

NGO/Nonprofit intern

While interning at a nonprofit, you’ll be working to support a cause or community. This role will give you hands-on experience working in a cross-functional capacity as well as the flexibility to gain expertise in different roles. From doing research to helping with logistics, marketing and operations, an internship at an NGO or nonprofit will give you insights into all of the trends and issues you’ve studied in your global studies classes.

Journalism intern

If you plan on branching out into digital or broadcast journalism, an internship for a newspaper or news channel is the way to go. As a journalism intern, you’ll get to research stories, observe the editing process, manage social media accounts and attend media-related events. You’ll also get to network, pitch ideas and possibly write your own articles on some of the important national and global issues you’re passionate about.

Public relations intern

Since public relations is a vital component of fields such as politics, government and entertainment, global studies majors wishing to specialize in PR can get much-needed experience through an internship. During this internship, you’ll promote the brand behind a product or individual. You’ll also get a feel for what the PR work culture is like, while learning how to develop and manage social media and publicity campaigns.

Public policy intern

From assisting with the collection of legislative research to researching and analyzing various areas of public policy or even attending conferences as a representative of the organization, a public policy internship gives students a solid understanding of how policy is enacted. Whether your internship focuses on educational reform, economic development or a humanitarian division or organization, you’ll get wonderful exposure into the procedures that play a major role in facilitating change.

Business internship (sales, marketing, operations) for a global company

Another common internship for global studies majors is a business internship with a global company. By giving you exposure to different areas of the business—like marketing, sales and operations—this type of internship will help you learn more about patterns and trends in the global market while also giving you a chance to apply what you’ve learned during your time in college.

More than anything, an internship gives you much-needed insight into the aspects of your major that you are most interested in. This is especially essential for global studies majors, given the fact that the major opens up so many possible doors.

Next, learn more about this college major such as What is a Global Studies Major? and get more career tips for internships and entry-level jobs such as Top 10 Things You Should Look For In An Internship.

Types of Internships for Literature Majors

Majoring in literature is a great opportunity to broaden your perspectives about literature, culture and academia. But if you’re a literature major, you may be wondering how you can apply that knowledge in the real world, especially when it comes to finding a job that’s right for you. This is where an internship can help. Giving you hands-on experience of a particular type of role, internships help you fine-tune your marketable skills and prepare you for applying those skills and knowledge in the real world.

Some of the most common internships for literature majors are:

Publishing intern

Whether you’re working for an independent publisher or a big publishing house, a publishing internship helps you get a sense of everything involved in putting out a book or putting together a peer-reviewed journal. From researching author biographies to fact-checking information, writing press releases, arranging book signings and assisting with the operations of your particular department, you’ll get great exposure to what the publishing field is all about.

Literary agency intern

As a literary agency intern, you’ll assist the staff of a literary agency as they negotiate contracts and prepare manuscripts for publication. You’ll also assist with updating the website and social media accounts, reading and evaluating manuscripts and handling email correspondence with authors. Depending on the type of literary agency you work for, you may also be asked to prepare contracts and participate in meetings and workshops. This type of internship is great exposure to another side of the publishing industry.

Literary magazine intern

Interning for a literary magazine is a wonderful opportunity to learn more about poetry and short fiction while still gaining some insights into the world of publishing. As an intern, you’ll assist the editorial staff with tracking submissions, evaluating manuscripts and transcribing interviews. You may also coordinate schedules, manage social media accounts, write press releases and sit in on editorial meetings. It’s fast-paced environment but also one that lets you wear many hats.

Journalism intern

If you’re a literature major looking to branch out into journalism, an internship with a digital media company, radio or television network is the way to go. Along with researching and fact-checking articles, your responsibilities may include attending media events and updating social media accounts. Depending on the type of publication you work for, you might even get an opportunity to conduct interviews or write articles. A journalism internship will give you the hands-on experience you need to get your foot in the door for a career in journalism.

Public relations intern

If you have a strong interest in media and public relations, a public relations internship could be another great option. Based either at a PR agency or on an in-house team, this type of internship will give you a firsthand feel for what it takes to create and maintain a public presence for a brand. You’ll also learn how to write press releases, communicate with clients and pitch article ideas to media outlets.

Nonprofit intern

For literature majors who are considering going into the nonprofit sector, an internship at a nonprofit could be a good fit. From assisting with grant writing to managing social media accounts, you’ll get to put your communication skills to use while also learning more about how nonprofits operate.

From knowing how to research a news story to coordinating the different processes involved in publishing a literary magazine, an internship is a wonderful way for literature majors to explore their options, learn new skills and reinvent themselves.

Next, learn more about this college major such as What Types of Skills Are Best for a Literature Major? and get more career tips for internships and entry-level jobs such as 6 Things to Do in Your First Week at a New Job.

How to Get a Job at an Auction House

Working with rare pieces of art is a dream for many people, but for those who work at an auction house, it’s also a reality. If you’re an arts or design major, or just someone who’s interested in learning more about the art world, you might be wondering about the types of career opportunities you can find at an auction house and what you need to do to be considered for those opportunities.

To find more about how auction houses operate and how you can land a job at one, we spoke with Alexa Mendez, a post sale coordinator at Christie’s.

What are the different types of auction house positions?

Like most other fields, the art world involves a variety of different positions including roles like marketing, operations, sales and business development. And because not all of these roles require an art background, it’s entirely possible to find a position you like and that also matches your skill set. Alexa’s advice? Don’t be afraid to think outside the box. “It’s about what you can do in the industry that you want to be in,” she says, explaining that her own academic background in finance and international business seems far removed from the world of art. However, by leveraging her business skills she was able to find an opportunity on the finance team at Christie’s and has since advanced to be a more senior role as a post sale coordinator.

What types of skills do you need to work at an auction house?

Even with so many opportunities for different careers, most jobs within an auction house setting require two things: 1) A strong knowledge of the art industry and 2) The ability to work as part of a cross-functional team.

Some of the skills that are crucial for any type of auction house position are:

Knowledge of the art industry

Although you don’t need to be an arts major to work in the art industry, having strong knowledge of the field is a key requirement of working at an auction house. In order to develop this knowledge, you can either take some art electives in college, or you can do your own research on the industry by reading relevant publications and following your favorite artists on social media.

Communication skills

Because of the cross-functional nature of the art world (and of auction houses in particular), being able to communicate in a clear and timely fashion is a crucial part of being successful in this field.

Organizational skills

Due to the many steps involved in organizing and hosting an auction (such as sourcing the pieces, planning the event and generating publicity around it), having strong organizational skills is extremely important for anyone working in an auction house setting. This will ensure that auctions and sales are well coordinated and that clients are happy with the way their purchases are handled.

How do you get your foot in the door for a job at an auction house?

One of the biggest misconceptions about auction houses is that you have to have a certain artistic or personal background to work there. In fact, when applying for her job at Christie’s, Alexa was prepared to do pretty much anything to get her foot in the door. “I will scrub the floors if that’s what it takes to start here,” she remembers saying after she reached out to them through a cold call. But she didn’t have to. Instead, she was able to demonstrate her talents in business operations and finance and prove that she could bring a lot of value to the organization. “I started off as a finance assistant and now it’s almost four years and three positions later,” she says, emphasizing that her finance background not only helped her get her foot in the door but also helped her advance within the organization. Her biggest tip: Figure out what you can bring to the table and show the employer what you can do for them.

Working at an auction house is a great opportunity for those who are interested in the business side of the art world. To find out if this type of career is right for you, we suggest doing an internship and getting some first-hand exposure to what it’s like to work at an auction house.

Next, get more career tips for internships and entry-level jobs such as How to Get a Mentor at Work and find answers to common interview questions such as What’s Your Dream Job?

What Types of Skills Are Best for a Literature Major?

Before you decide to officially become a literature major, it’s important to make sure you know what you’re getting yourself into in terms of the skills you’ll need to succeed in the major. Here are the top 5 qualities you need to make sure you possess to ensure that you rock the literature major.

Reading skills

It goes without saying that you’ll be reading a lot as a literature major. However, being a “good” reader goes far beyond just getting through the pages and books you’re assigned in a timely manner.

The best readers are also star annotators and note-takers, and they know how best to categorize and remember the information they read for later.

Writing skills

Literature majors will spend lots of time crafting their thoughts on various works into essays and papers, so the most successful majors are those who have strong writing skills and also aren’t intimidated by writing prompts.

Critical thinking skills

Being a literature major means being able to think deeply about everything you read and dissect. You’ll need to be able to look at a work from all angles and consider what is the most important. Then, you’ll need to articulate those thoughts well.

Communication skills

Literature majors need to not only read and write well, but they need to be able to explain their thought processes and ideas effortlessly to professors and peers in the classroom. Additionally, the best literature majors aren’t intimidated by speaking in classes ranging from small seminars of under 15 students to lecture halls of over 100 people.

Time management skills

Because you’ll spend so much time reading, writing, and expressing your thoughts and ideas in class, the best literature majors have superior time management skills to keep track of it all. This means knowing when and where you work best on campus and being willing to spend some extra time in the library to make sure you understand the material (even on weekends).


Next, learn more about this college major such as Architecture and get more career tips for internships and entry-level jobs such as How to Get the Job You Really Want.

Types of Entry-Level Jobs for Global Studies Majors

A global studies major puts you in the running for a wide range of entry-level opportunities in exciting fields like civil service, politics and education. Best of all, many of these opportunities can offer you exposure to international relations and help you put your global studies skills to use.

Some of the most common entry-level jobs for global studies majors include:

Civil service worker

A career as a civil service worker, which requires a solid understanding of national and global issues, is a great way to explore work pertaining to human rights issues, U.S. trade opportunities, business processes and the promotion of U.S. diplomatic efforts.

Congressional aide

As a congressional aide, you’ll support a congressperson in everything from researching legislative bills to organizing administrative logistics. You may also get to attend meetings with the congressperson and communicate with the public and government officials on their behalf.

Consular/embassy assistant

As a global studies major, you can also succeed as a consular assistant where your responsibilities will include immigrant and nonimmigrant visa processing, conducting outreach and answering questions related to immigration policy.

Management consultant

Another exciting option that will allow you to explore your interests in business and economics is the field of management consulting. As a consultant, you’ll share your expertise and knowledge with your clients, adding a fresh perspective to each project while also coming up with results-oriented solutions.

HR for a global company

As a human resource representative for a global company, you’ll assist with day-to-day human resource functions such as employee onboarding and training, updating organizational records and employee-employer relations. Your global studies major will come in handy in preparing you to handle the needs of a diverse and multicultural staff.

Humanitarian relief worker

A job as a humanitarian aid worker (whether for a nonprofit organization or a private foundation) will take you to the frontline of areas in need of emergency aid. In this role, you’ll work with a team to coordinate emergency action programs for areas that have been affected by natural disasters or those that are located within a war zone. As an aid worker, you’ll make sure that people who are in need of aid receive it in an efficient manner.

International development consultant

An international development consultant works closely with international client-based project teams, providing direction and managing relationships while tracking the progress of specific projects and ensuring that those projects meet their goals.

International relations specialist

As an international relations specialist, you’ll focus on expanding a particular company’s international reach by analyzing business strategies and foreign policies from a global perspective. You might also be responsible for organizing public relations campaigns and communicating with international clients.


A global studies major can also give you a great start in the world of journalism. Whether you want to work as an international reporter, a foreign correspondent or on any other type of journalism that requires a global perspective, your global studies major will put you in a great position to research and write stories of global importance.

Legal assistant

If you’re interested in branching out into law, a job as a legal assistant is a great first step. As a legal assistant, you’ll assist lawyers in preparing for trials, meetings, hearings and closings. From examining evidence to drawing up contracts or other types of agreements, you’ll get a lot of exposure to the legal field and get the chance to make a real impact through your work.

Whether you’re interested in going into management consulting, journalism or civil service, a global studies major gives you an abundance of skills to land a job that’s tailored to your interests.

Next, learn more about this college major such as What Types of Skills Are Best for a Global Studies Major? and get more career tips for internships and entry-level jobs such as When to Start Applying for a Summer Internship.

Types of Internships for Sociology Majors

Because sociology is such a broad field, sociology majors end up working in a variety of different industries including politics, law and social work. Not sure which field is right for you? An internship is a great way to explore your options and build your skill set while gaining some professional experience.

Here are just a few of the most common internships for sociology majors:

Political intern

Many nonprofits and legislative offices have a political intern who is dedicated to helping the political team with legislation, policy and any other related tasks. As a political intern, your duties may include sitting in on hearings held by your city or state government, drafting campaigns related to specific policies, creating policy recommendations and writing notes and briefings.

Development intern

For sociology majors who choose to work in the nonprofit world, many will find themselves focusing on helping causes gain traction and raise money. As a development intern, you’ll help your organization discover donors, raise money, keep in contact with loyal donors and apply for grants.

Social work intern

As a social work intern, you’ll work at a nonprofit to support its full-time social work staff. Depending on what type of organization you work for, your responsibilities may include becoming an advocate for a particular client or case, creating notes and briefings for case files and assisting clients in the office.

Legal intern

Whether you’re working for a nonprofit, a law firm or a government agency, being a legal intern allows you to sit in on client meetings and cases, create important briefings and keep case files organized. You’ll also get to take your learnings and apply them to a specific field or a particular problem, allowing you to really make an impact in a meaningful way.

Research intern

If you want to go to grad school or work in a research-related field, every bit of research experience you can add to your resume will make a big difference. Regardless of whether you work at an academic institution or a nonprofit, this internship will help you learn the basics of collecting, cleaning and organizing data for statistical analysis. You’ll also get to create reports from your findings and learn how to gain valuable insights by interpreting those reports.

From knowing the details behind every case file to understanding how to write a grant proposal, an internship is a wonderful and safe space for sociology majors to explore their options, learn new skills and reinvent themselves.

Next, learn more about this college major such as What Types of Skills Are Best for a Sociology Major? and get more career tips for internships and entry-level jobs such as What is a Panel Interview?

Type of Entry-Level Jobs for Literature Majors

From writing a thoughtful essay to researching a particular type of literary theory, majoring in literature gives you the chance to develop your research and communication skills, while also learning how to think critically. But if you’re an English major, you may be wondering about the best way to apply your skills in the real world. Should you become a teacher or go into the world of publishing?

Here are some of the most common entry-level jobs for literature majors:

English teacher

Teaching is one of the most popular entry-level jobs for humanities majors and being an English teacher is an especially great fit for those who are majoring in literature. As an English teacher, you’ll help your students gain an appreciation for literature of all kinds while also teaching them how to interpret texts and improve their writing skills.

Publishing assistant

An entry-level job as a publishing assistant is a great way to get your foot in the door of the publishing industry. In this role, you’ll assist in the book production process and will take on tasks such as emailing authors and book distributors, managing social and media accounts and keeping track of budgets.

Editorial assistant

The most common type of editorial job for recent grads is an editorial assistant position. Based either at a specific publication, a publishing house or a literary agency, this position will give you great exposure to the many aspects of the publishing industry. From reading article pitches and manuscripts to communicating with writers and editing their work, you’ll gain a lot of experience very quickly while also learning what kind of content works best with your chosen audience.


A copywriter crafts engaging copy for websites, social media platforms and marketing materials. As an entry-level copywriter, you’ll put your writing skills to use by creating various types of content designed to resonate with an audience. Depending on whether you work for a marketing agency or as part of an in-house marketing team, you’ll be asked to create a specific voice for each of the brands you work with, and to maintain that voice in all of the writing you do.

Social media manager

As a social media manager, you increase the visibility of a brand, campaign or event on social media by creating engaging posts, answering customer questions and measuring the results of each campaign. You’ll also use analytics tools to determine what approaches work best and optimize your campaigns accordingly.

Copy editor

As a copy editor, you’ll be tasked with ensuring that the articles you’re editing are free of spelling and grammar mistakes and that they adhere to a specific writing style (such as AP style if you’re editing journalistic articles). Whether you work for a publishing house, a digital media company or marketing firm, you’ll play a crucial role in the day-to-day operation of the editorial department.

Whether you’re interested in journalism, publishing or teaching, a literature major gives you an abundance of skills to land a job that’s right for you.

Next, learn more about this college major such as What is a Literature Major and is it Right for Me? and get more career tips for internships and entry-level jobs such as the Top 10 Skills Employers Want in an Intern.

How to Tell An Employer About Competing Job Offers

Having competing job offers is generally considered a great problem to have. It means that multiple companies are interested in working with you and that you’ve proven yourself to be a competitive candidate. However, there are a few things you should consider as you navigate this process, from how to keep both companies in play while exploring your options to whether to tell each company about other offers you’ve received.

It may seem tricky, but we’ve broken down the steps to make sure that you’re able to juggle everything without dropping the ball, and that you end up with the internship or entry-level job you want.

Step 1: Make sure your offers are in writing.

A verbal offer is not an official offer. Before you attempt to negotiate with various companies, you need to make sure their offers are in writing — outlining not only base salary but other important benefits like health insurance, vacation days and flexibility.

If you’ve only received a verbal offer, contact the hiring manager, recruiter or HR representative that you’ve been interacting with to firm up the offer. Consider saying, “This all looks great. I’m looking forward to reviewing all of the offer details. When can I expect to receive a written offer?”

Step 2: Don’t accept an offer if you may back out. Instead, extend the timeline.

Let’s say Company A just gave you an offer, but your top choice – Company B – has yet to finalize their offer in writing. Company A is pressuring you to get back to them with your final decision. What do you do?

Ideally, you want more time. Unless you think asking for more time would be so damaging that it could put your offer at risk, it’s worth saying, “I’m very excited about this offer and the chance to join Company A. I know that you asked for my response by Tuesday, but  there’s a lot to consider here. Could I have until Thursday to communicate my final decision?”

It’s possible that Company A may decline your extension request, in which case you have to make a choice to either 1) accept Company A’s offer without knowing the outcome of Company B’s offer or 2) decline Company A while banking on Company B’s offer. While it might be enticing to accept Company A’s offer while also keeping the door open for Company B, accepting and then rescinding an offer could easily burn bridges. It’s best to avoid that scenario if possible.

Pro Tip: A final option, and one we recommend, is to reach out to Company B and tell them about your situation. Let them know that they’re your first choice but that you’re under a deadline to make a decision. If they’re planning to make an offer, this will

Step 3: Carefully time when you’ll inform each company about the other offers.

If you’re going to inform Company B about Company A’s offer, it’s best to do so in the final interview or final follow-up, once you’ve had a chance to gauge where you stand relative to competing candidates. That said, you don’t want companies thinking you’ve pitted them against one another in a salary war. You could run the risk of having your original offer pulled if you mishandle this conversation.

Only if you’re feeling confident in the offers and your ability to manage the conversation carefully, should you go ahead and share this information. The goal here is to get all of the offers on the table at the same time for you to consider them and maximize your chance to make the best decision.

Say something like:“I’m very excited about the opportunity to work for Company B, especially the ability to have an impact. Company B is by far my top choice, but I have just received another offer this week at a company that would allow me to build out a different skillset. They asked for my response in a few days, and I was wondering when I could anticipate to find out Company B’s final decision. Thank you again for a great interview process, and I very much look forward to hearing your response.”

Step 4: Show appreciation.

Wrapping up your communication with a company should be done with grace and tact. Showing sincere appreciation for the hiring managers involved respects the time and energy they invested in your hiring process. When you’re ready to turn down one of the job offers, find out the right way to turn down a job offer.

With this tricky part of the journey managed, you’ll be ready to dive into your new job.

Next, get more career tips for internships and entry-level jobs such as What to Do When You Want a Second Job Offer and find answers to common interview questions such as Tell Me About Yourself.